You can find the rest of the parsha text on Chabad.org at Vayechi.
I am struck with the part of the story (49:1) where “Yaakov called for his sons and said, ‘Gather around and I will tell you what will happen to you in the end of days.’” Then he doesn’t tell them! Rashi says that at that moment, the Shechinah left him, so his window into the future closed. Why did the Shechinah leave him?
With Yaakov’s death comes the end of the three generations of our fathers and mothers, setting the stage for the next chapter of our story, slavery in Egypt. The rabbis interpret “end of days” to mean the end of our time of exile. There are four periods of exile: slavery in Egypt was the first, and our current time, before the coming of Moshiach, is the last and longest.
Our job in exile is to gather the sparks we find here and raise them up. The window had to close for Yaakov because if he had revealed it all then, and we knew the end, the story we’re living today couldn’t exist, and the sparks that we’ve been sent here to redeem would remain unredeemed. The Zohar alludes to this when it says:
“And I will tell you.” What is the meaning of “tell” (agidah)? The secret wisdom… All that could be said, Yaakov said. The secret is hidden inside. (Zohar, Bereishit, Section 1, p. 234B)
Reb Shlomo used to say: “What’s the deepest kind of friendship? It’s when we can tell each other our secrets.” Maybe the secret of the end of days can’t be communicated in words. Maybe we only get to find it inside the story of exile. Maybe we only get to hear it when God is our closest friend. Maybe we only get to share it when we discover a friend who is on the journey with us.
From Rabbi Shefa Gold
Rabbi Shefa Gold’s Torah Journeys
(And He Lived)
Genesis 47:28 – 50:26
Jacob, on his deathbed, gives a blessing to each of his sons.
“JACOB LIVED,” the portion begins, and the story reveals a deathbed scene where instead of saying that “Jacob died,” it says he was “gathered into his people” 1…into us. The blessing that I receive from Vayechi is the knowledge that Jacob still lives within me.
After wrestling with an angel on the banks of the Jabbok, Jacob received a new name. That moment represented a spiritual transformation. “Your name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel, for you have striven with beings divine and human and you have prevailed,” said the angel.2
Yet, until the very end of the narrative of Genesis, Jacob is called by both names. Even at the moment of death he is referred to as “Jacob”. Jacob’s story tells us something quite profound about the nature of spiritual transformation. And it helps us relate more realistically to our own process of transformation.
LOOKING AT YOUR OWN JACOB, you might find certain qualities that seem to be wired into your personality. You might be a worrier or you might be impatient, argumentative, controlling or manipulative. When you begin to have experiences of expanded consciousness, you are given the name “Israel” and you take on a spiritual practice that proceeds from that new identity. But “Jacob” never really goes away. Through our practice we learn how to manage that worrier, that impatient one, that manipulator. We can learn to have compassion for the fearful source of that voice. After many years of committed practice I realize that the voices of Jacob-within-us may never be entirely silenced, but as the Israel-in-us grows, those Jacob voices lose their power to compel and we are no longer tricked or trapped by their arguments.
When I receive the blessing of the knowledge of where Jacob lives within me, then I can recognize his voice and gently refuse his advice, looking instead to Israel, for wisdom, passion and courage for my journey.
THE SPIRITUAL CHALLENGE
The Spiritual Challenge
VAYECHI gives us an extraordinary scene of Jacob on his deathbed initiating each of his sons on their path, naming the particular medicine that they will carry. Depending on how that medicine is used, it can be either a blessing or a curse. To carry a particular medicine into the world always means navigating a spiritual challenge, for the power of your medicine can heal or destroy.
Each of Jacob’s sons are gifted with a totem – an image, quality or animal that can be their teacher in the spirit realms. We carry within us all the medicine of our ancestors
the Unstable water of Reuben,
the Lion of Judah,
the Harbor of Zebulon,
the Strong-boned ass of Issachar,
the Snake of Dan,
the Warrior of Gad,
the Prosperity of Asher,
the Deer of Naftali,
the Wild Ass of Joseph
and the Hungry Wolf of Benjamin.
EACH IMAGE is a pathway through which power can move through us into the world. The spiritual challenge is to call on that power as we become healers, to use that power with awareness, and dedicate it to holiness – to the good of all.
1 Genesis 49:33
2 Genesis 32:29
To read Guideline For Practice please click on the link to the website:
Reb Shalom Brodt
(From an email sent on January 9, 2009)
The ‘Closed’ Parsha
At the beginning of the parsha Rashi alerts us to its unusual opening. According to our tradition, it was Moshe Rabbeinu who organized the Torah into 53 weekly portions- ‘parshiyot’. Parsha means a portion or a section of Torah. Each weekly parsha is made up of many smaller portions, and each is called a parsha. In the sefer Torah you can distinguish between one parsha and another by the open space between them. The size of this open space varies in length. A “parsha p’tucha” is an open parsha, i.e. there is an open space in between that parsha and the previous one. However our parsha, parshas Va’yechi, is a “parsha stumah” a ‘closed parsha’, i.e. there is no open space between the beginning of our parsha and the end of the previous one. Why is this so?
Rashi brings us two reasons for this: “This is because once our father Yaakov died the eyes and hearts of Israel were ‘closed’ because of the misery of the bondage, for they [the Egyptians then] began to subjugate them. An alternate explanation: Because Yaakov wished to reveal the End to his children and it was concealed [closed] from him” (Bereishis Rabbah).
A Matter Of Perspective
The Ishbitzer Rebbe, in his Mei Hashiloach brings a teaching from the holy Zohar explaining how Yaakov Avinu “lived” during the seventeen years that he was in Mitzrayim, Hashem gave Yaakov a taste of a drop of life ‘m’ein olam ha-bah:’ a taste that is but an approximation of the ‘World to Come’. It is this drop of life, of the life of the World to Come, which sustained Yaakov Avinu in Egypt.
It is told that before the holy Maggid of Mezritch (if I’m not mistaken) passed away, he had promised that he would raise a storm in heaven over the suffering of his people. A while after he had passed away, the holy Chozeh of Lublin finally saw his Rebbe in a dream. The Chozeh asked him why he wasn’t storming the heavens on behalf of his brothers and sisters? The Maggid told him that from where he is now, everything looks good, and therefore he can’t ask Hashem to change anything. Thus we may say that Yaakov Avinu was able to ‘live’ in Mitzrayim because Hashem was giving him a different perspective by giving him a taste of the World to Come, Olam Ha-bah. Yaakov Avinu further transmitted this taste of Olam Ha-bah to his children and grandchildren, until the arrival of Moshiach.
15: Yosef’s brothers saw that their father was dead, and they said, “Perhaps Yoseif still bears a grudge against us. He will then certainly repay us for all the evil that we did him.”
16: They sent a command to Yosef saying, “Your father issued a command before his death, saying,
17: ‘This is what you should say to Yosef, “Please forgive the transgression of your brothers and their sin, for they did evil to you. And now please forgive the transgression of the servants of the G-d of your father.” Yosef wept as his brothers spoke to him.
18: His brothers also went and threw themselves down before him, and they said, “Behold, we are your slaves.”
19: Yoseif said to them, “Fear not. For am I in place of El-him?
20: You meant to do evil to me, but El-him meant it for good, in order to do as it is today, to preserve the lives of a great people. (Bereishis 50:15-20)
O Shepherd of Israel, hearken, Thou Who leads Joseph like flocks, Thou Who dwells between the cherubim, shine forth.
O God, return us; cause Your countenance to shine and we shall be saved.
Psalm 80: 2,4
In the above verse we see that King David calls all the people of Israel by the name Yosef. Why is this so? Rashi explains:
‘Joseph’: All Israel are called by the name Joseph because he sustained and supported them in time of famine.
The Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l points out that a name is meant to express the inner substance and essence of the person [or object] and not merely an aspect of that person [or object]. Yosef provided nourishment for his family only for the duration of the famine, a relatively short period of time. If so why is all of Israel forever called by his name?
The Rebbe explains that when Yosef sustained his family during the famine he actually did much more than that. By acting with kindness towards those who had acted very inappropriately towards him, Yosef not only taught us “to repay offenders with favors, as taught in the Zohar,10 that we should learn from the example of Joseph’s conduct with his brothers, when he repaid them for the suffering they brought upon him, with kindness and favors,”(Lessons in Tanya, at the end of Chapter 12) he actually bequeathed this extraordinarily good attribute upon his brothers and all of Israel, and taught us how a Jew must behave towards his brothers and sisters-
“to conduct himself toward his fellow with the quality of kindness and to display towards his fellow a disproportionate love, in suffering from him to the furthest extreme, without being provoked into anger, G d forbid, or to take revenge in kind, G d forbid, even without anger; but, on the contrary, to repay offenders with favors, as taught in the Zohar,10 that we should learn from the example of Joseph’s conduct with his brothers.” (Tanya, at the end of Chapter 12)
The Rebbe further explains that the reason we are to behave this way is because one should not judge one’s fellow Jew just on the basis of his external qualities and deeds alone. Instead, he should look deeply into his inner being, to his essential soul which always remains pure.
“And when a Jew relates to a fellow Jew in this manner- this will bring about that within his self, his inner soul-essence will be aroused and revealed. And that is why all of Israel is called by the name Yosef, until the very last of all generations, because it is from Yosef that all of Yisrael received the energy and capability to “to repay offenders with favors.” “(Likkutei Sichos 5 p. 239)
From Rav DovBer Pinson
Aryae and I wrote this blessing for the unveiling of my father in 2006. We wanted to acknowledge the transition of my siblings and me to the new generation of elders in my family. This is now the
time of life for Joseph and his brothers.
Blessing for the New Elders
We bless all of us still in this world who have now taken a step forward. For the parents who are now the grandparents and elders. For the children who are now the parents. May we be blessed to continue to pass along to our children and their children the wisdom and stories of the generations buried here. May we include the wisdom that we have learned in our own time and bring love and generosity to the upcoming generations.
Wendy Berk and Aryae Coopersmith
O holy Shabbes Inspiration Vayechi, part 2
D Eb F# G
Every Shabbat is associated with a musical figure called a *maqam,
Arabic cognate to Hebrew maqom, Place.
The Philosopher Avicenna (d. 1037)
Identified 12 principal modes
From “place” (Arabic) Hebrew cognate Maqom.
Ethical and cosmological implications
Signs of zodiac
Times of day and night
Healings and treatments,
Each Torah portion is associated with a musical figure
Something else from Rashi
the portion is closed —
Jacob has something he wants to reveal to his children
but it was closed off to him [see midrash B.Rabbah 96:1]
the end is a revelation
it’s the end of all Exile
the end of time
he wanted to reveal to his children
but they are closed off to him.
There are some elusives, unfinishables
at the end of life
Jacob wants to give them over to his children
but he cannot.
What he does give over is blessings —
poetry, visions spoken in metaphor
but the ultimate redemption —
the end of time
reminds closed off to him.
Jacob needs the assurance
he will be buried with his ancestors
Israel – not the place where his wife is buried
who he describes this way:
she died on me in the land of Canaan on the road [48:7]
died on me?
Something unfinished here too.
Closed off and elusive
visions dreams and songs
at the end of Jacob’s life
the end of Genesis
no ends at all, no beginnings
the illusion of all endings all beginnings
all arrivals all starts
there is only journey and movement and the inevitable rise and fall
no starts and stops at all
it doesn’t begin and it doesn’t end
the great river that flows out of itself
the death of Jacob
the death of Joseph
the end of Genesis
the narratives of the Mothers and Fathers
the beginning of Exile
no sides even
Jacob pulls up his legs and dies
what then –
O holy Shabbes Inspiration Vayechi, part 1
Father Jacob is really living now
even in Egypt he is alive
we want to believe
as he dies
we want to know
life, real life, full life
Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years
and the days of Jacob, the years of his life,
his two lives
were one hundred and forty seven years.
The time approached for Israel to die
so he called for his son, for Joseph. . . [Gen.47:28-29]
His two lives were about over
the life of Jacob
the life of Israel
the man had two lives
the giver the taker —
as he is about to die
I am fishing around in the Torah
for the beginning of the section
because it is closed
closed — no separation between this week’s text
and last week’s text — in the physical Torah.
Go to the poet Rashi
the eyes of Israel (we the people)
were closed because of the passing of dear Jacob
and the crafty Egyptians were rolling the story
Our decline a series of events
– can we enter the story and stop it at any place?
As if you may stop the movement towards catastrophe –
As we can accelerate the movement
From Rabbi Arthur Segal 2009
”When I woke up this morning I could’ve sworn it was the Judgment Day”
This parasha ends the book of Genesis. We find our people in the Land of the Pharaohs. We find that Jacob dies at the conclusion of this Torah portion. Before his death, Jacob blesses the two sons of Joseph as well as his own twelve sons.
To Judah, Jacob said “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a scholar from among his descendents until Shiloh arrives, and his will be an assemblage of nations.” (Gen 49:10 Art Scroll Edition). Other translations (Plaut) read: “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, so that tribute shall come to him, and the homage of peoples be his.” Still others (Hertz) read: “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, as long as men come to Shiloh, and onto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.” The King James version states: “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes: and to Him shall be the obedience of the people.”
Why are there so many translations? What has been read into this passage by so many over the centuries? What can we derive from this verse for ourselves?
In Talmud Sanhedrin, Chapter 11, the sages argue about the validity of the Messiah in Judaism, who he will be, how he will arrive, if he already arrived, and when he would arrive. One of their proof texts is this very verse. On daf (folio) 98B, Rav Shela’s student interprets Shiloh as referring to the Messiah on the basis of the verse from Isaiah 18:7: “a gift (tribute) shall be offered to God,” which the Midrash renders into “all nations are destined to bring a gift to Israel and the Messianic king.” The word Shiloh is formed by the two Hebrew words for gift and “to him.” The Ramban (Nachmonides) says that Jacob promises Judah in this verse that the kings of the Jewish people will emerge exclusively from his tribe, until the advent of the Messiah, who will rule not only over all of the Jews but of all the nations.
By the scepter not departing from Judah, Jacob is predetermining that our kings will be from the Tribe of Judah. (Of course our first king was Saul, from Benjamin’s tribe). However, it set up the “divine right” of the Davidic line from the tribe of Judah to be not only our kings, but also our Exilarchs in the Diaspora in Babylon. Many of the Rosh yeshivas during the time of the writing of the Mishna traced their lineage to King David. According to Talmud Sanhedrin (daf 5A), Hillel and Judah ha Nasi were from the Davidic-Judah line.
Onkelos’ Aramaic Translation of the Torah (Targum) renders “until Shiloh arrives” as “until the messiah arrives, to whom the kingdom belongs.” This Torah version was written in 90 C.E. This verse is the primary Torah source for the Talmudic belief (and it was not a unanimously held rabbinic belief at the time) in a Jewish messiah. The rabbis consistently referred to it in their debates with the church leaders in the Middle Ages.
The lines that follow (Gen. 49:11-12) make allusions to the messiah as a man of peace (the Talmud says one of his names will be the prince of peace) by the symbols of the donkey and the vineyards.
We can see that this verse pushes some hot topical buttons. The Talmudic sages, living under the harsh Roman thumb in the centuries following the destruction of the second Temple and the total loss of independence of Judea, looked for hope in a redeemer. There were no new prophets. They had to work with the texts that where available to them. Their background was Pharasitic, as the Sadducees denied the oral law (Mishna-Gemorah-Talmud) as divine and did not believe in any bodily resurrection.
The rabbis in Sanhedrin grappled with these issues. They tried to justify the suffering of our people and of the martyrdom of our great sages by speaking of the world to come and of the bodily resurrection. They also debated the idea of a messianic leader to come and save us. They even agreed upon the idea, that in every generation, a great sage will be martyred and will die for the sins of those in his generation.
These rabbis were not just dealing in the time of a few Jews who were following a cult of Jesus. They were writing the Talmud up to 500 C.E. from 586 B.C.E. The sages had to contend with forces of Christianity combined with the power of Constantine’s new Rome in what is now Istanbul. While the written Mishna was still being discussed from 200 to 500 C.E. in what we call the Gemorah, the Nician creed (which delineated the Trinity) went into effect less than a hundred years after Judah ha Nasi redacted the oral tradition.
We therefore can see how different people at different times translated this verse to meet their philosophical needs. The Traditionalists via the Art Scroll edition are very Moshiac oriented. Rabbi Plaut, representing the post World War Two Reform movement, set his translation up to completely mirror the Davidic line of flesh and blood kings, but to delete references to a divinely sent messiah- savior.
How does this battle for wording, translate into our lives in this third millennium? Simply put, we as individuals need to pick up the scepter promised to us. We need to lead using honest and ethical values whether we are at home, at work, at play, or in the synagogue boardroom. We cannot stand idly by while we are needed to do justice. We need to be excellent parents and spouses. We also need to be kind and giving adult children to our own elderly. We are all the Children of Jacob, the People of Israel, and we have all taken the name of the tribe of Judah by calling ourselves Jews.
The royal staff is in our hands no matter what position we find ourselves. Let’s all do our best to be the most honest and ethical we can be in what ever we do. This is what God wants from us. We all have sparks of our own savior inside each of us. Let us each vow to hold on to this scepter, and let its golden glow be a light unto others.
Rabbi Arthur Segal
From Rabbi Rachel Barenblat
Carrying Our Bones 2007
At the beginning of this week’s portion, Vayehi, we encounter Jacob on his deathbed:
Jacob lived seventeen years in the land of Egypt, so that the span of Jacob’s life came to one hundred and forty-seven years. And when the time approached for Israel to die, he summoned his son Joseph and said to him, “Do me this favor, place your hand under my thigh as a pledge of your steadfast loyalty: please do not bury me in Egypt. When I lie down with my fathers, take me up from Egypt and bury me in their burial-place.”
It’s a striking last request, and his son Joseph makes a similar one at the very end of the portion (and the end of Bereshit): “When God has taken notice of you, you shall carry up my bones from here.” On one level, it’s a very physical thing to ask: don’t bury me here in a foreign land. Take my bones out of here. Settle them in the place I consider home.” On another level, it’s a request with a lot of emotional resonance. What our forefathers may have been asking is something like, “Don’t leave me behind. Don’t forget me here. Carry me with you when you go.”
Jacob’s request is immediately fulfilled. After his body is embalmed for forty days (there’s that number again, symbol of bringing a task to full fruition), Joseph seeks Pharaoh’s permission to carry his father home. Pharaoh grants it, recognizing the importance of the oath Joseph has sworn. With great fanfare and procession Jacob is carried to the Cave of Machpelah, and a week of mourning is observed before Joseph and the entourage return to Egypt.
Joseph’s request, in turn, is designed to be deferred. Perhaps he is aware that under these new circumstances — he is an old man, no longer in power — his sons will not be able to carry him forth promptly, as he had done with the body of his father. Instead he solicits the promise that when God has taken notice of his descendants, they are to take him with them. And that is where the book ends, foreshadowing the exodus but pausing before the narrative can take us to that conclusion.
I see a particular poignancy in Joseph’s request. He knows it may take generations for his wish to be fulfilled. And I think he also knows that if his bones were left behind, that would be tremendously painful for his descendants, a wound that could impact generations to come. In 1993 I visited Prague for the first time, and went with my grandparents to the cemetary where my grandmother’s parents are buried…and realized how difficult it must have been for my grandmother to emigrate, leaving their graves behind. All four of my grandparents had to make that kind of decision, and it can’t have been easy.
Surely Joseph impressed his instruction upon his descendants because he wanted to be brought out of Egypt. But maybe he also impressed it upon them because he didn’t want them to suffer the sadness of being distant from their history. If they had left their ancestors’ bones behind, that would have been just one more excuse for them to bemoan their departure, to wish they had never left. They might have felt impossibly lonely, disconnected not only from the only home they had ever known but also from those they had buried there. Carrying his bones allowed them to feel they were bringing their history — their story — with them on the journey toward unknown freedom.
Of course, the comparison between the Israelites packing up Joseph’s bones, and my grandparents having to leave their ancestors’ bones behind, breaks down under scrutiny. Europe wasn’t Mitzrayim, and America isn’t the Promised Land, at least not in the traditional sense of the term. But the analogy continues to move me; I find an emotional resonance in it which transcends the physical. The Israelites carried their ancestors’ bones with them as a physical sign of the emotional connection that bound them to their history, to where they had come from and who their forebears had been.
For us today, that emotional connection may be what matters, even if exhuming and transporting our ancestors’ bones would never cross our minds. In a world of increased mobility, where we may live too far-away to visit and venerate our ancestors’ burial-places, we have to find other ways of carrying them with us. When I migrated from south Texas to Massachusetts, I brought my grandparents with me: in the abundance of photographs and artifacts that decorate my home, in my grandfather’s tallit and the framed page from my great-grandmother’s cookbook, and most importantly in the memories of who they were and how important we were to one another. Those are the “bones” that matter to me.
I like to think that as I continue to struggle toward liberation — as I enact the recurring process of recognizing the constraints which bind me, and accepting God’s help in moving through them into a place of freedom — I carry my ancestors with me. Each of us can play a small part in fulfilling Joseph’s request: that as we move from slavery to freedom, we bring with us the talismanic reminder of where and who we come from, so that our ancestors are never left behind
The Midrash relates that when G-d desired to create man, Truth argued that “he should not be created, for he is full of lies.” Kindness, however, said, “He should be created, for he is full of kindness.”
To this, Truth might have replied: “But that, too, is just another of man’s lies. Yes, man does acts of kindness to his fellows, but not because he is ‘full of kindness’–only because he expects them to be kind to him in return.”
However, there is one act of kindness that proves Truth wrong: the kindness done to the dead. This “kindness and truth,” as the Torah calls it, shows that man is capable of a truly altruistic deed, thereby attesting that all our acts of kindness–even those superficially tainted by selfish motives–are in essence true, deriving from an intrinsic desire to give of ourselves to our fellows.
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)
Through Adversity to Ultimate Redemption
Every individual must experience rebirth countless times throughout his life in order to reach higher spiritual levels that will catapult him ever closer to Hashem. Just as an individual grows as a result of each problem he confronts, so too does the world. It is this ‘birth process’ which will eventually spawn Moshiach. Thus, Moshiach will be a descendant of Ya’akov’s fourth son, Yehuda. Yehuda represents the wisdom of an expanded mind which comes as a result of neutralizing the spiritual energies of harshness that are generated by adversity. Therefore, no one should ever despair when troubles come, for difficulties are Hashem’s tools for an individual’s, as well as the nation’s growth towards greater intimacy with Him. Therefore, we must unify ourselves to annul all din, using our collective talents to help each other grow closer to Hashem, especially by helping those who are most distant from Him. When this occurs, the prophecy hidden in Ya’akov’s blessings will be realized and Moshiach will come. Amen! [This topic is covered in far more depth in the source material.] (Lekutai Halachot: Choshen Mishpat: Hilchot A’vaida U’ Metziah 3:11, 12)
From Rabbi Rachel Barenblat
This week’s portion: the blessings of Ephraim and Menashe
Posted: 13 Dec 2010 12:07 PM PST
There’s a custom of blessing our children on Friday nights as we usher in Shabbat. I didn’t grow up with this custom, but I’ve witnessed it many times, and have once or twice had the opportunity to participate in it myself.
The blessing has two parts. Traditionally, girls are blessed that they be like Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah; boys are blessed that they be like Ephraim and Menashe, the sons of Joseph who were born to him before his father and brothers moved to Egypt. Then we say the priestly blessing (“May God bless you and keep you…”) to the children regardless of gender.
The blessing for boys, found at Aish.com. The blessing for girls can also be found there.
It’s always baffled me a little bit that we bless our daughters to be like the matriarchs, but we don’t bless our sons to be like the patriarchs. Why are we blessing our sons that they turn out like the two elder sons of Joseph, rather than blessing them to be like Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya’akov themselves?
This week’s Torah portion, Vayechi, contains the iconic moment when Jacob (a.k.a. Israel), on his deathbed, blesses Ephraim and Menashe. He places his hands on the boys’ heads (putting his right hand on the younger boy’s head, and his left hand on the older boy’s head, which was apparently a reversal of tradition — Genesis is full of stories of inversion wherein the younger child receives the blessing due to the older one) and he says the following words to Joseph:
The God in whose ways my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,
The God who has been my shepherd from my birth to this day —
The Angel who has redeemed me from all harm —
Bless the lads.
In them may my name be recalled,
And the names of my fathers Abraham and Isaac,
And may they be teeming multitudes upon the earth.”
It’s an intriguing blessing. For one thing, it’s given to Joseph, not to the boys directly. It invokes Abraham and Isaac twice, and invokes both God and angelic presence. And it suggests that it is through these two grandsons that Jacob’s name will be recalled. The Torah text adds, “So he blessed them that day, saying, ‘By you shall Israel invoke blessings, saying: God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh.'” Clearly this verse is the origin of the custom of blessing our sons in this way. But why do we bless our boys to be like these two, instead of like any of the other fine figures in Torah?
I did a bit of digging, and here’s my favorite among the answers that I found: Ephraim and Menashe were the first two brothers in our ancestral story who didn’t fight. Avraham’s two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, were cast by their parents as adversaries (and their rivalry remains, in some ways, at the heart of conflict between Jews and Muslims today.) Jacob and Esau likewise fought; after Jacob tricked Esau out of his blessing, Jacob fled for his life. Though they reconciled eventually, Jacob never trusted his brother’s good will and their relationship remained strained. And Jacob’s sons bitterly resented their youngest brother Joseph, even going so far as to sell him into slavery.
But Ephraim and Menashe do not fight. That’s why we bless our sons to walk in their footsteps. (I’ve seen this interpretation credited to Rabbi Mordechai Elon, a contemporary Israeli rabbi.) I like the idea that we refer to Ephraim and Menashe in this moment of blessing because theirs was the first generation in our ancestral family tree which wasn’t marred by sibling rivalry. The acrimony between the patriarchs and their brothers does ensure that their stories from Torah are approachable and recognizable to us…but is not exactly what I’d hope for my son to emulate in his own life.
The other interpretation which seems fairly popular notes that that Ephraim and Menashe grew up in Egypt. Their mother, Asenath, was Egyptian (as I noted in the Torah poem I wrote for this parsha a few years ago.) In the Biblical imagination, Egypt is the prototypical Diaspora location. But despite their Diaspora childhood and education, Ephraim and Menashe held fast to their minority religious identity, and therefore we bless our sons to be like them in hopes that they too will cling to their Jewishness despite the many pressures of Diaspora life. (This one is variously attributed to R’ Shimshon Raphael Hirsch and to the Eved haMelech, R’ Ovadya Hadia.)
I’d like to recast that second interpretation a little bit. Some retellings of this teaching seem to focus on the importance of clinging to our Jewish heritage despite the siren song of Christian culture. (Some have a tone which I don’t much care for, like this explanation from Chabad rabbi R’ Shmuel Kogan, who writes, “to maintain a high level of spirituality and character amongst a society that is devoid of morals and ethics is the real test.”) But I don’t favor that way of relating to other traditions. I’d rather celebrate the idea that we bless our sons to be like these two Diaspora figures because, as Diaspora Jews, they had the unique opportunity to grow up as my son will grow up: as a citizen of the world, who inevitably encounters people of other traditions and chooses to relate to them with respect.
After blessing these two grandsons, Jacob blesses his twelve sons — many with fairly harsh recriminations. He reminds Joseph to bury him in the cave of Machpelah, back in the land of Canaan (the Cave of the Patriarchs, now in Hebron; I visited it back in 2008.) And then he dies, and Joseph grieves, and he takes his father to be buried in the land of Canaan. While he’s gone, his brothers panic, thinking, ‘what if when he returns he takes revenge on us for our previous misdeeds?’ But Joseph’s response to their concern is quite wonderful. He says, don’t worry; I’m not God, it’s not my job to seek vengeance; and besides, “although you intended me harm, God intended it for good.” Maybe this is why he was able to raise his sons without acrimony toward each other: because he had learned how to let go of his own familial resentments, and how to discern the thread of divine plan in the many ups and downs of his personal story.
What do we need to let go of in order to rear our children without negative family narratives? What blessing can we offer which will convey to them our desires for who we hope they will grow up to be?
From Rav DovBer Pinson
Week’s Energy for Parshas VaYechi
Big Picture Vision
This weeks Torah reading speaks of Yaakov / Jacob’s final years of life, the seventeen years he spends reunited with his family and the blessings and encouragement he gives them for the future.
The Torah reading begins with the words “And Yaakov lived in the land of Egypt for seventeen years, and Yaakov’s days, the years of his life, were seven years, and forty, and a hundred year.” (47:28)
In simple terms this means that he lived to the age of one hundred and forty seven.
Yet, peculiarly, the verse says, “seven years, and forty, and a hundred year.”
Also, interestingly, in regards to the seven years it says ‘years’ in the plural and with regards to the hundred years the verse uses the word year in the singular.
‘Years’ in plural are the “details of life” whereas ‘year’ in singular refers to the “general overall picture of life.”
Throughout his life, Yaakov is continually being surprised. It begins with taking the blessings from Esav, needing to suddenly run away, being tricked into marrying the sister of the woman he loves and finally the disappearance of his beloved son, Yosef.
But the end of his life are his best years. His family is united and living in peace, and in these final years, he is able to recognize the patterns of his journey through life. He sees the intent of each step along the way, realizing the bigger picture. It becomes clear to him that all the details of his life were bringing him to this place he was now at.
In life we can have both ‘big picture’ vision and ‘small picture’ vision. Very often we find ourselves stuck in the ‘small picture’ reality. We see only the immediate details of our story – what is currently happening to us, what we are involved with at this moment or our emotional state at this time.
We see the trees and not the forest, as it were.
It is only when looking backwards that we catch a glimpse of the bigger picture.
We live forward but only understand backward. We go from “years” plural to “year” singular.
Oftentimes, we get so bogged down by the small picture vision of life that we forget our big picture vision. Our lives have a trajectory. We have our passion and deep desires to achieve something with our lives, and yet, we often lose ourselves in the minutiae, “this person did this or that to me, i can’t believe this is happening to me now, etc . . . “ It is because of this that we forget the bigger picture, and we veer off course.
The Energy of the Week:Big Picture VisionThe energy coming to us from Vayechi is that of ‘big picture vision’.
This weeks Torah reading gives us the impetus to attain clarity of vision.
Particularly, the ability to step back from the details and recognize the little fragments as integral parts of a whole.
Recognize the minutiae for what it is and don’t get stuck in the smallness of events, emotions and situations, in this way retaining your ability to see the entire picture of life and creation.
Keep sight of your greater goals and purpose being sure not to get bogged down by the details.
From American Jewish World Service
Shira Fischer MD/PhD
At points of transition, particularly at the end of life, it is natural to look back at what we have accomplished and ahead to what we are giving the next generation. Some of us will bequeath money—directed towards a specific cause, through a foundation or in a building. Others will pass on our ideas through the institutions we found or the books we publish, or through the memories of our students and children. These are the ways that we hope our legacy—the things we lived for in life, our values and commitments—will live on.
So seemed to be Jacob’s mindset as he lay on his deathbed, reviewing his life. He knew his children would be his legacy, already a large number and Divinely destined to grow.1 He therefore proceeded with what is arguably the most poetic portion of B’reishit, his description of what will happen to each son “at the end of days.” Some sons he praised for living his values. For example, he noted Judah’s leadership among his brothers and other peoples, and he praised the tenacity of Gad and Dan by sneaking the root of his own name—akeiv, “ankle,”—into their blessings. Others he critiqued for failing to embody his values, as with his rebuke of Simon and Levi for their violence in the city of Sh’chem. His blessings to other sons suggest a reflective hope that his children’s lives will be better than his own: he blessed Asher with agricultural plenty, perhaps remembering the famine his own family endured; and when he blessed Naftali with the speed of a doe, he might have hoped to spare him the burden of travel, like the slow migration he made from Laban’s home with four wives, 11 children and a lot of livestock.2
And yet, this account of praise, critique, values and aspirations was probably not enough of a legacy for Jacob. He wanted his children not only to know his values, but also to live them out in the world, to carry on the ethical trajectory of his life. Perhaps this is reflected in Jacob’s parting utterance: more command than wish, he instructed all his sons that he desired to be buried not in Egypt, but with his ancestors—“Where Abraham was buried, and Sarah his wife, where Isaac was buried, and Rebecca his wife, and where I buried Leah.”3 By asking his sons not to leave him in Egypt, he was forcing them to take action, to stay connected to their ancestors, and ultimately, to leave Egypt and return to the land of Israel.
The rest of the Torah can be viewed as the story of the Children of Israel attempting to fulfill Jacob’s—Israel’s—legacy. As we follow the story, we may ask ourselves the same questions that the Children of Israel face: What legacy was left to us? What are we doing with what we have inherited to move our story forward, to make the world a better place than the one into which we were born?
It is not easy to answer this question, as we have each inherited multiple legacies from the many people who have come before us and inspired us. As children, we must ask: what have we inherited from our ancestors, and how can we move their values forward? And as people who want to actively effect change in the world, we must ask: what work have we inherited from the activists before us, and how are we doing our part to move these causes forward?
A difficult but effective way to answer these questions is to put ourselves in Jacob’s place: what do we want our own legacy to be to those whom we will leave behind? Will each of us be remembered as someone who worked to make the world a better place, who worked to help the vulnerable, who advocated for justice? If not, what might we do differently so that when we get to that point in our lives, we will be able to look back and say, I have lived out the legacy left to me, and I leave behind a legacy of my own?
Legacy is thus as much about looking forward as it is about looking back. Indeed, as this parshah brings us to the end of B’reishit, the first book of the Torah, it is interesting to note that each book ends with a hint about where the Children of Israel are headed. B’reishit, Genesis, ends with the word “Egypt,” as the Children of Israel become the Nation of Israel and begin their extended stay in Egypt. Sh’mot, Exodus, ends with “on all their journeys,” as they depart Egypt for the desert. Vayikra, Leviticus, closes with “at Mount Sinai,” leading us into the Israelites’ travels through the Sinai Desert, chronicled in B’midbar, Numbers. Its closing words are “the Jordan near Jericho,” where the Israelites stay through the final book of the Torah. And D’varim, Deuteronomy, closes the Torah with the word “Israel,” propelling the Jewish people into the Land. With this literary forward momentum, it is as if the Torah is leaving us with its legacy: the command to apply what we have learned as we move forward on our journey.
The last parshah of the whole Torah, V’zot Hab’rachah, references the legacy of Jacob once more, calling the Torah the “legacy of the community of Jacob.”4 As Rashi comments on that phrase: “We have taken hold of it, and we will not forsake it!”5 So too, the legacy of our ancestors and predecessors is not something simply left to us as a memory or keepsake, but rather, it is an impetus to action—to take hold of, to live out and to pass along to those who come after us.
From Rabbi James Stone Goodman Dec 2010
His two lives were about over
the life of Jacob
the life of Israel
the man had two lives
the giver the taker –
as he is about to die
[I am fishing around in the Torah
for the beginning of the section]
because it is closed
closed — no separation between this week’s text
and last week’s text — in the physical Torah.
Go to the poet Rashi
the eyes of Israel [we the people]
were closed because of the passing of dear Jacob
and the crafty Egyptians were rolling the story
Our decline a series of events
– can we enter the story and stop it at any place?
As you may stop the movement towards catastrophe –
From Rav Kook
Vayechi: Jacob’s Superior Blessing
Before his death, Jacob blessed each of his sons. He blessed his beloved son Joseph with:
“Blessings of heaven above, blessings of the abyss lying beneath; blessings of plenty and children. The blessings of your father are superior to those of my parents, until the desired hills of eternity.” (Gen. 49:25-26)
Why did Jacob claim that his blessings were better than those of his parents?
What did he mean by the phrase “until the desired hills of eternity”?
Vision of a Future World
The blessings of Abraham and Sarah were revealed in the miracles that God performed for them – a son born to them at an advanced age, Divine protection when Pharaoh kidnapped Sarah. Isaac and Rebecca were similarly blessed with miraculous intervention when dealing with the Philistine king Abimelekh.
Jacob prayed that his son should also be blessed with miraculous protection when needed. This is what he meant by “blessings of heaven above.” However, Jacob stipulated that his blessings should be revealed within the context of the natural physical world. Thus, he emphasized that they should also be “blessings of the abyss lying beneath.”
This is truly an amazing blessing, reflecting a higher level of spiritual influence. Unlike a miracle that disrupts the physical realm, Jacob prayed that the physical world itself will be elevated and uplifted.
In fact, Jacob’s blessing is a vision of the World to Come. He foresaw a world beyond simple miracles, a world whose material boundaries are infinitely expanded. Thus, Jacob explained that his blessing was “until the desired hills of eternity.” In other words, this vision belongs to a future world, a universe infinitely elevated and boundless.
(adapted from Olat Re’iyah vol. II, p. 203)
From Rabbi Simon Jacobson
Vayechi: The Twelve Tribes
12 Paths in Life
In this week’s Torah portion – which closes the book of Genesis – we read how Jacob, in his last days, blesses his children, the twelve tribes. In these blessings lie many secrets foretelling events to come. As the verse tells us: And Jacob called to his sons, and said: “Gather together, that I may tell you what will happen with you in the end of days.”
As a blueprint for life these blessings have much to teach us. Each of the twelve tribes reflects a unique path in life. As the verse tells us at the conclusion of the blessings: All these are the twelve tribes of Israel… every one according to his blessing he blessed them (Vayechi 49:28). What is the meaning of the words “every one according to his blessing?” “Blessing” in Hebrew also means to ‘draw down’ (‘hamshocho’), from the root ‘mavrich.’ Every one of the tribes has his particular journey, his specific energy which he must manifest in this world.
Indeed, our sages teach that the Re(e)d sea split into twelve paths, providing a separate path for each of the twelve tribes.
To understand these twelve paths we must study the different ways that the tribes are described in the Torah. We find three descriptions for the tribes. First, when they are named by their mothers (Vayeitzei – Genesis 29-30; 35:18), each child/tribe is given a name with a particular meaning for a specific reason. Second, when Jacob blesses them (in this week’s portion). And finally, when Moses blesses them at the end of the Torah (Deuteronomy 33:6-25).
In addition the tribes are named and specified many times in the Torah – when they enter Egypt, when they leave Egypt, during their 40 year journey through the Sinai wilderness they travel and camp as tribes, their Temple dedication offerings are repeated twelve times (though they brought the same offerings) to emphasize the twelve unique paths.
Here is one of many applications of these twelve paths, based primarily on this week’s blessings.
Reuven – The First
Shimeon – The Aggressor
Levi – The Cleric
Judah – The Leader
Dan – The Judge
Naftali – The Free Spirit
Gad – The Warrior
Asher – The Prosperous One
Issachar – The Scholar
Zevulun – The Businessperson
Joseph – The Sufferer
Menashe – Reconnection
Efraim – Transformation
Benjamin – The Ravenous Consumer
Reuven – the first-born (‘bechor’) – represents the powerful energy of everything that comes first. The first fruit, the first moments of the day, the beginning of every creation – has enormous amount of energy. “Unstable like water,’ this power can go either way: If harnessed properly, the ‘bechor’/Reuven energy can change worlds; if abused it can destroy. Like water, it can be the source of life, but if left unchanneled it erodes its environment and can flood its surroundings.
Shimeon is aggressive gevurah – the antithesis of Reuven’s chesed/water. The fierce anger and cruel wrath that can result from unbridled gevurah must be eliminated lest it turns into weapons of violence that consume the person and all those he comes in contact with. [The lesson of this today is self understood].
Levi is the tribe chosen to serve in the Temple. “Levi” also means ‘attached’ or ‘joined’. Levi is the personality of dedicating your life to serving a higher calling. Of freeing yourself from your bounds to material survival and attaching yourself to Divine service (see Rambam, end of Hilchot Shemittah v’Yovel).
Judah means acknowledgement (‘hodaah,’ as in ‘modeh ani’). Judah’s name also includes the four letters of the Divine name Havaya. Judah is the leader; his descendants would be the kings of Israel, beginning with King David and concluding with Moshiach. Judah is the path of selflessness (‘bittul’) – the most vital ingredient in true leadership.
Dan is the path of law and order (‘dan’ means to judge). Objective justice is the heart of any civilization.
Naftali is the free spirit personality. Like a ‘deer running free’ – breaking out of the status quo – independence is a necessary component in growth. Yet, this free spiritedness must always take care to ‘deliver words of beauty.’
Gad is the warrior archetype. Expanding on the justice of Dan, Gad is ready to fight for his beliefs. The warrior is necessary to both defend our cherished values and to protect our freedoms.
Asher is both prosperity and pleasure. Asher is the dimension of blessing beyond the norm – to be given more than what is necessary for survival. Asher is the personality of not just getting what you need, but also enjoying it.
Issachar is the scholar. Scholarship provides wisdom, clarity and direction. It is the foundation of any system. Issachar is the dedication to immerse in study and education.
Zevulun is the merchant, the businessperson personality. His role is to enter the marketplace and redeem the Divine sparks within the material world (the ‘secret treasure hidden in the sand’ – Deuteronomy 33:19). Zevulun complements Issachar; they forge a partnership: Zevulun supports the scholar, he funds houses of scholarship, which earns him a right to partake in the reward of Issachar’s studies.
Joseph is the element of suffering in life. Yet, he not only survives; he thrives. He achieves greatness through his challenges. He overcomes all adversary and becomes a great leader, saving his entire generation. Despite his corrupt environment, he maintains his spiritual integrity. The powerful light that emerges from darkness in Joseph divides into two dimensions – his two sons: Menashe and Efraim:
Menashe represents the ability to not succumb to the powers of the ‘mitzraim-constraints’ that want to make you forget your spiritual roots. To remain connected regardless of the challenges.
Efraim takes it even further. It is not enough to just survive in an alien environment, but to thrive – to ‘be fruitful in the land of my affliction.’ Efraim is the power to transform the difficulties into Divine power.
Benjamin is hungry, hungry for the Divine sparks in all of existence. So, like a ‘ravenous wolf’ Benjamin recognizes that his mission is to passionately seek out the Divine energy embedded in matter, devour it, consume and elevate it.
Twelve tribes. Twelve paths. All necessary to reach our destination.
Which personality are you? What part do you need to develop?
May we discover our path and live up to it. And may that help us reach the time — at the end of days – when we will gain clarity as to who belongs to what tribe (see Rambam Hilchot Melochim 12:3). Perhaps the significance of this revelation is the crystallization that will come in the time when the ‘world will be filled with Divine knowledge as the waters cover the sea.’
Torah Reading for Week of December 12 – December 18, 2010
“Redeeming Ourselves and Others”
by Rabbi Cheryl Weiner, PhD,’07
This week, we encounter the death of Jacob and the end of the archetypal ancestral story of Abraham and his family. I believe that this narrative is a cautionary tale. It is a compilation of stories of confrontations between our siblings and ourselves, of battles with authority between fathers and sons and between humans and G-d. Each one of the characters is flawed and needs to grow spiritually in order to survive the twists and turns of life. Some even say that G-d grows in the Book of Genesis— creating one world and destroying it in the flood — and creating a family that consistently fights within itself over birthrights and favoritisms and finally redeems the family through forgiveness.
The last passages are so poignant as Joseph’s brothers ask for forgiveness in the name of their father… “Forgive, I urge you, the offense and guilt of your brothers who treated you so harshly.” And Joseph was in tears as they spoke to him. And later, when they offer to be his servants, Joseph says to them “Have no fear! Am I a substitute for G-d?”(In other words, who am I to judge your actions?) “Besides, although you intended me harm, G-d intended it for good, so as to bring about the present result— the survival of many people. So fear not. I will sustain you and your children.”
In this final act of forgiveness, Joseph acknowledges that the family dynamic was a catalyst for him to go out into the world and make something of himself and to get beyond his personal story. He was now the vizier of Egypt and in charge of the greatest nation on earth, not the younger arrogant brother who flaunted his coat of many colors as a sign of his father’s favoritism. Through being thrown into the pit and service in the court of the Pharaoh, Joseph had to overcome his arrogance and deal with his personal power in a way that would save the world not destroy it. In this last speech, Joseph demonstrates that he has redeemed the dynamics of hate that were part of the family drama and substituted a dynamic of hope. He will take care of not only Egypt, but his brother’s children as well.
We too can turn our lives around and change the family dynamics that we are often trapped in. We do not have to live out the script that we were given. This time of year often re-ignites family feuds that go back decades. As a Chaplain, I often see these dynamics played out around the bedside of a parent who is dying. A second wife who is fighting with the children for control over the funeral. Siblings still fighting for authority or recognition or who loved whom best. We can change the script even at the end of the story.
As you go about your week, contemplate the story that was given to you and the one that you compose about your life. See if you can re-frame your narrative to promote forgiveness and redemption. Again, as a Chaplain, I wrestle with the phrase “G-d saves”. What does this mean? Perhaps, it means that G-d saves us from the pit, that G-d saves us from those who would harm us in Pharaoh’s court with lies and untruths. Perhaps G-d saves us from ourselves by taking away our coat of many colors, so that we can clothe ourselves in a humility that better serves humanity. Each of us has been given the potential to be a redeemer in the world, reflecting G-d’s heavenly role on earth.
From Rabbi Yoel Glick
The Help of Heaven
From Rabbi Laura Duhan Kaplan
The Mystical Power of Minyan (2005/5766)
Jacob called his sons and said, “Gather round . . .” (Bereisheet/Genesis 49:1)
Why does Jacob ask his sons to gather into a single group in order to receive their individual deathbed blessings from him? Why does Midrash teach that they answer by praying the Shema together? What does this teach us about praying as a group?
Zohar turns to the verse “He has turned to the prayer of the solitary one and has not spurned their prayer” (Psalms 102:18). When the prayer of an individual comes before the Blessed Holy One, God “turns it over” – scrutinizes that personís sins and virtue. But a congregational prayer includes many prayers of those who are not virtuous, and yet they all enter the presence of the King without the King “turning over” – overturning – their sins! Jacob’s sons pray together hoping that their father will overlook their sins and give each a loving blessing.
Rabbi Moshe Cordovero looks towards the verse “God forgives the . . . remnant of God’s heritage” (Micah 7:18). The Hebrew word “remnant” can also be understood to mean “oneís own flesh.” All people are blood relatives, and all souls are united. Thus each person should desire the well-being of all others. Ideally, everyone will uphold the mitzvah of “love your neighbor as yourself” and act with kindness and forgiveness. Because the souls of each member of a minyan are connected with one another, the prayer of a minyan is equal in power to 100 prayers. Jacob’s sons pray together to show that they have forgiven one another the abuses of youth and understand that they are stronger as a loving unit.
From Rabbi Jill Hammer
THE TWO PROMISES: ON THE BONES OF JACOB AND JOSEPH
DECEMBER 11, 2013 LEAVE A COMMENT
Parashat Vayechi, the Torah portion at the very end of the Book of Genesis, begins with a promise and ends with a promise. The Torah portion describes the last years of Jacob in Egypt. It begins with the promise Joseph makes to Jacob: an oath that he will bury his father Jacob in the cave of Machpelah. As Jacob says: “Bury me with my fathers…” It ends with the promise that Jacob’s brothers make to Joseph that when their descendants leave Egypt, Joseph’s bones will accompany them. As Joseph says: “Carry up my bones from here.” What can we learn from these two promises?
Jacob desires to be rejoined with the land on which he lived, and with those whom he loves most.
The promise to Jacob relates to the past. In his deathbed request, Jacob asserts that he does not wish to be buried in Egypt. He emphasizes that he wants to be brought to the cave of Machpelah, specifying “in the field of Ephron the Hittite” so there will be no mistake about what he means. The cave of Machpelah is the family tomb, which Abraham bought from the residents of Canaan so Sarah could have a resting place. Jacob desires to be rejoined with the land on which he lived, and with those whom he loves most. After blessing his children, Jacob’s thoughts turn to his wife Leah, parents Rebekah and Isaac, and grandparents Abraham and Sarah. He wishes to be buried with them, observing the tradition of his family and mingling his bones with those of his ancestors. He must depend on his children to fulfill this longing.
Jacob’s children, by observing this last wish, do him chesed: great kindness. The sons of Jacob, who have hurt their father terribly in concealing from him that Joseph was sold into Egypt, attempt to set right their relationship to the past by honoring Jacob’s wishes. Jacob’s funeral is full of pomp and circumstance, as the family processes back to Canaan to inter the patriarch. Midrash Tanhuma on Parashat Vayechi notes that Joseph makes sure his father’s funeral is fit for a king—and receives the reward that Moses himself will see to Joseph’s bones.
The promise to Joseph, however, relates to the future. At the end of Genesis, Joseph is old and about to die. He will be buried in a coffin in Egypt, probably because he is an important Egyptian official and Pharaoh would not consent to bury him in the land of Canaan. Joseph’s relatives promise, on behalf of their descendants, that when God causes the Hebrew tribes to leave Egypt, they will retrieve Joseph’s bones and carry them to the land of Israel.
Joseph seems less concerned with being reunited with those he loves than with giving the nation of Israel something to live for.
Joseph does not specify a burial site; he only says: “Carry up my bones from here.” Joseph seems less concerned with being reunited with those he loves than with giving the nation of Israel something to live for. By exacting this promise, Joseph makes sure that the people must remember who he is, remember where he is buried, and remember their connection to the land of Canaan. The oath to Joseph means his family cannot forget who they are. Joseph is doing a chesed for his descendants: his deathbed request makes the Exodus possible. The Midrash Tanhuma quoted above indicates that while others are packing to leave Egypt, Moses is searching for the bones of Joseph so that the Exodus can unfold as it should.
These two promises reflect two aspects of our relationship to Torah. The central word of Jacob’s promise is kivru, bury, a word that indicates descent or downward motion. The promise to Jacob teaches us to show loyalty and love to our ancestors, respecting the people, ideas, and places they loved. One aspect of Torah is the call to live in harmony with the past. The other aspect of Torah is the call to prepare for those that will come after us by creating a world and a heritage that our distant descendants will find beautiful, useful and uplifting. The central word of Joseph’s promise is veha’alitem: lift up. This promise to Joseph, a word that indicates ascent or upward motion, teaches us to show love and loyalty to the generations to come. Our connection to humans, to the world, and to the Holy One reverberates between these two promises.
May we too fulfill these promises. May we care for the planet, for its people, and for our tradition in such a way that we extend our love to the past, and give those who come afterward something to treasure. May we embody the mystery of Joseph’s bones by becoming partners in creating the future world.
From the Maqam Project
Something I want to reveal to my children but it is closed off to me — elusive, unfinished I want to give it over to my children but I cannot.
What I do give over: blessings — poetry, visions spoken in metaphor but the ultimate redemption — remains closed off to me.
Closed off and elusive the ends of things no ends at all, no beginnings. Seams the illusion of all endings all beginnings all arrivals all starts –
Just this: journey and movement and the inevitable rise and fall no starts and stops at all it doesn’t begin and it doesn’t end —
The great river flows out of itself into itself.
Don’t be afraid.
From Maggid Zelig Golden
From Darkness to Light, Reconnecting To our Food:
Zelig Golden | December 21, 2007
In Va-Yechi, our creation story culminates with Jacob on his deathbed blessing his sons. (Gen. 49.) He highlights characteristics that are unique to each of his twelve sons, the fathers of our twelve tribes. According to Rashi, five of these blessings focus on the agricultural specificity of each tribe’s territory in the Land of Israel.
For Zevulun, Jacob promises that he “shall dwell at the edge of the sea. His will be a shore for ships…” (Gen. 49:13.) The Talmud Megillah tells how the beaches of Zevulun were home to the molluscs from which techelet dye (for the blue tallis thread) could be extracted. (Talmud Bavli Megillah 6b.) His territory was agriculturally poor but a lucrative resource for snail-farming.
Jacob’s blessing of Judah describes a land of vines and garments dyed with wines. (Gen. 49: 11.) For Issachar, “He saw a resting place, that it was good, and the land that it was pleasant,” (Gen. 49:15.) Rashi writes, “He saw that his part of the land was blessed and would produce good fruit.” (Rashi, Gen. 49:15, s.v. vayar minucha ki tov) Issachar, whose tribe’s destiny was immersion in Torah learning, was bestowed a place where fruits grew in abundance, making the food life easy and devotion to study practical.
As Rabbi Julian Sinclair teaches, Rashi shows us that each region of Israel has its own native crops, that each tribe, connected to different regions of the Land, is also connected to different crops – Judah grows grapes, Asher grows olives for oil, Issachar harvests fruit. A biblical Jew knew its food with a direct relationship to the place and the people who brought it forth from the earth.
Today, in modern Israel and the U.S., we have all but lost such intimate connection to the land, the source of our food. For over 100 years, the “Green Revolution” has brought us industrial agriculture and the global comodification of food. Yes, we eat mangoes in Berkeley, and we have abundance in January, but we have also lost a primal connection to our source.
It is striking that the Torah raises the land, food connection during this final story of Genesis. Due to famine, we have become dislocated from our land, beginning nearly two centuries of life in Egypt, most of which will be spent enslaved. The end of Genesis, thus marks a distinct movement toward the darkness.
In the first moments of the Torah, however, we are taught that from the darkness comes forth the light. (Gen 1:2-3.) Thus, our exile to Egypt is the planting of the seeds of our return to ourselves, and to our land. Likewise, our current disconnection from land is merely the ground upon which we are planting the seeds of renewed connection. This summer, for example, Chochmat Ha Lev piloted the first west coast Tuv Ha’Aretz (“best of the land”) program, connecting our community to Eat Well Farm to bring us fresh produce every week. And next December, Hazon (www.hazon.org), the organization that brings you Tuv Ha’Aretz, will bring the annual Jewish Food Conference, the heart of the Jewish Food Movement, right here to the Bay Area (Dec. 25-28, mark your calendars!).
As we pass through the winter equinox, literally the darkest time of the year, the Torah teaches us that even as connection to land is lost, we must remember and begin our return. Just as we begin our return to longer sunnier days, let Jacob’s blessing be a reminder to begin the return to our connection with land and food.
[Ideas and references in this commentary are borrowed from Rabbi Julian Sinclair, “Eating Holy Food in a Holy Way,” Eitz Chayim Hee, A weekly internet Torah Commentary for Environmental Learning and Action.]
From Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies
SHABBAT PARASHAT – פרשת השבוע
By: Rabbi Gail Labovitz, Associate Professor of Rabbinics
“The Truth and Nothing But the Truth?”
Torah Reading: Genesis 47:28 – 50:26
Haftarah Reading: I Kings 2:1 – 2:12
When Jacob gathers his sons to his deathbed, he opens with this exhortation: “Gather round, that I may tell you what will befall you in the aftertime of days” (49:1). At the conclusion of his speaking, the Torah tells us, “this is what their father spoke to them; he blessed them, according to what belonged to each as blessing, he blessed them” (49:28). Already, then, a discontinuity between the opening of Jacob’s discourse and its conclusion should be apparent. What is forecast to be a forecast is, once concluded, summed up as something else entirely, a blessing. But when we turn to the actual content of the discourse that comes between these two verses, matters of description become more complicated still.
In fact, in order to highlight the problem, I have deliberately chosen to use Everett Fox’s very literalist translation above, instead of that offered by Etz Hayim and several other commonly used translations. In the case of verse 1, the differences are not that significant, but here is how Etz Hayim translates verse 28: “and this is what their father said to them as he bade them farewell, addressing to each a parting word appropriate to him.” Given that the root b,r,ch, which usually indicates blessing, is used three times in the verse, why translate it differently?
The editors of Etz Hayim remark in their commentary that the root “here is rendered ‘bade farewell’ because not all of the tribes received blessings” (p. 305). In fact, the word b,r,ch itself appears in the body of Jacob’s speech only in reference to Joseph (verses 22-26) – six times! – though the messages given to several other brothers are also clearly positive wishes for success and prosperity. But what are we to make of Jacob’s address to Reuven, in which he reminds his son of his sinful behavior with Bilhah, Jacob’s concubine/wife, calling him “unstable as water” and telling him “you shall excel no more” (verse 4)? Similarly, Jacob speaks to Shimon and Levi together (saying they “are a pair”), castigating them for anger and violence and lawlessness (verses 5-7), an indictment widely understood a reference to their (sneak) attack on the city of Shechem, described in Gen. 34.
I would like to suggest that the questions that have been raised so far are all interconnected. They are (or at least include):
Why does Jacob say he intends to give his sons a vision of their future, but then seems to speak of something else?
Why is the speech described as a blessing at its end, when some elements of it – especially the addresses to Reuven, Shimon, and Levi – do not read as blessings, but quite the opposite, as condemnations?
Why does Jacob address Reuven, Shimon, and Levi in this fashion?
From as early as the composition of the classical midrashic collection, Genesis Rabbah, the rabbis were aware of the first of these questions, and sought to answer it. In 98:2 of that work, it is suggested that just as Jacob was intending to reveal secrets of the future to his sons, this prophetic information was hidden from him; a similar tradition appears in the Babylonian Talmud, Pesachim 56a, and is cited by Rashi. Ibn Ezra, another medieval commentator, takes issue with this approach, however. He notes, as we too have, that these verses cannot be a blessing, for “where are the blessings of Reuven, Shimon, and Levi.” Rather, these verses are a form of prophecy, and only afterwards did Jacob bless all his sons. This then, also addresses the latter two questions, by suggesting that verse 28 itself is the moment at which Jacob blesses all his sons, together. This possibility appears, for example, in Genesis Rabbah 99:4 (as found in the Soncino translation):
AND HE BLESSED THEM is already written; why add, EVERYONE ACCORDING TO HIS BLESSING HE BLESSED THEM? But because he had blessed them, comparing Judah to a lion, Dan to a serpent, Naphtali to a hind, and Benjamin to a wolf; he subsequently included them altogether as one, declaring them all to be lions and serpents. The proof lies in this: Dan shall be a serpent (ib. 17); yet he [Moses] calls him a lion: Dan is a lion’s whelp (Deut.XXXIII, 22).
More intriguing to me, however, is another possible answer, offered in Etz Hayim in the commentary to verse 4, in which Jacob says bluntly to Reuven that he has “brought disgrace” through his behavior:
What sort of blessing is this? Perhaps the greatest blessing is to have someone who cares about you point out your faults. (299)
In a similar vein, some commentators have noted that if one reads closely, one will see that Jacob criticizes Shimon and Levi’s behavior, rather than Shimon and Levi themselves. By speaking bluntly and truthfully about their acts in the past, Jacob hopes to guide them on a different, more peaceful path in the future. Here again, truth-telling, though painful, can also be seen as a form of blessing.
So then – is truthfulness always the best path?
One possible answer to that question takes us back to the question of Jacob’s prophecy that may not be a prophecy. According to the tradition that Jacob intended to reveal the future to his sons, but was ultimately denied the ability to do so, why might that be? Once again, Etz Hayim offers an intriguing source:
Perhaps, when Jacob looked into the future, he saw the quarreling and bloodshed that would befall his descendants, and the spirit of prophecy cannot abide when there is grief and sadness (Naftali of Ropshitz). (299)
Or, what I take from this source – there are times when it is not appropriate to reveal the truth. In this case, not only is Jacob not to reveal the truth to his sons, but the truth of the future, because of its difficult nature, is to be hidden from Jacob himself! The effect of even a small glimpse is so distressing as to cut off Jacob’s ability to access any further vision. Perhaps sometimes we need to be protected from the full truth. Indeed, we know from elsewhere in the Torah that even God may resort to the “white lie” on occasion. Compare, for example, Gen. 18:12 and 13. When Sarah contemplates the possibility of bearing a child, she laughs at the thought “with my husband so old.” When God reports her words to Abraham, however, Sarah’s statement becomes “old as I am?” With a simple change from Sarah’s true statement, God protects Abraham’s feelings and marital accord between Abraham and Sarah.
Nor is this the only place in our parashah where we encounter this vexing problem of when it is appropriate to tell the truth and when a “white lie” might be in order. After Jacob dies, and his sons take his body back to Canaan for burial, once they are all back in Egypt, Gen. 50:15-17 relates:
When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “What if Joseph still bears a grudge against us and pays us back for all the wrong that we did him!” So they sent this message to Joseph, “Before his death your father left this instruction: So shall you say to Joseph, ‘Forgive, I urge you, the offense and guilt of your brothers who treated you so harshly…'” And Joseph was in tears as they spoke to him.
Are the brothers telling the truth? It must be noted that if Jacob did indeed say this to his sons (other than Joseph), there is no other record of it elsewhere in the narrative. In fact, if Jacob had intended to deliver such a message, we might have expected him to deliver it directly to Joseph, but there is no record of any conversation of that sort either.
Which raises another question – did Jacob ever know the truth of how Joseph came to Egypt? Think again of Jacob’s last discourse. If we presume that Jacob is telling the truth, as he knows it, about and to his sons, why mention other sins and failings while overlooking this one, one all participated in? Relatedly, a midrashic tradition asks, why did Joseph have to be told that his father was ill (48:1)? Did he not visit and keep in touch with his father? One possible answer is that no, he did not, precisely so that there would never be an occasion on which he was alone with his father, when his father might ask him uncomfortable questions about what happened to him. If this read of the story is correct (Jacob never found out the full truth), moreover, then we must presume that the brothers are not telling the truth to Joseph.
Should Joseph have told the truth to his father – presuming he did not? Are the brothers justified in lying to Joseph – if that’s what they did? Are there ever easy or obvious answers to such questions? Perhaps we start by being as honest with ourselves about our motives as we can be, by being as honest as we can about the possible outcomes for ourselves and others from withholding the truth, telling part of the truth, or speaking the whole truth and nothing but the truth. So help us God.
From Rabbi Jonathan Sacks
When is it Permitted to Tell a Lie
From Rabbi David Ingber
Embrace the Word
From Rabbi David Kasher
The Secret Code: Parshat Vayechi
From Reb Shlomo
This is a very short recording of Reb Shlomo at the House of Love and Prayer 1971
From Rabbi Jill Hammer
Jewish Book of Days
Waiting for Deliverance
There is an odd moment during Jacob’s final blessing. He pauses between the blessing of Dan and the blessing of Gad and recites: ” I wait for Your deliverance, Eternal!” Bible scholars suggest this phrase is a comma marking the halfway point of the blessing.
One traditional explanation for the phrase is that Jacob, while prophesying, sees a disturbing moment in the future and prays to avoid it (Madras Tanhuma, Va-yechi 12).
One other possibility is that this brief staccato sentence is the blessing of Dinah, daughter of Jacob. Dinah is the one child of Jacob whom he does not mention during his deathbed speech. She is the forgotten branch on the tree. Yet perhaps Dinah’s blessing is hidden in Jacob’s words. “I wait for Your deliverance” is an indication that Dinah, too, waits to be blessed.
These words invite us to have patience as we wait for new growth. They remind us that this moment of winter, whether freezing cold or balmy, contains a unique kind of deliverance, if we can open ourselves to it. Like Dinah, we too can seek out the blessings of strength, patience, and courage.
“A Name for Each Occasion”
By Rabbi Avraham Greenstein, AJRCA Professor of Hebrew
An attentive reader of this week’s parsha will notice something quite striking while reading its very first two verses: The first verse refers to Jacob by the name of Jacob, whereas the verse immediately following it refers to him as Israel. Unlike Abraham, whose name never reverts to Avram, Jacob gains the name of Israel only to have it applied to him with seeming inconsistency. This is especially puzzling in that Jacob’s renaming comes along with a prohibition that his name no longer be called Jacob but rather Israel:
(Gen 35:10).“שִׁמְךָ יַעֲקֹב לֹא-יִקָּרֵא שִׁמְךָ עוֹד יַעֲקֹב כִּי אִם-יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה שְׁמֶךָ”
Nevertheless, in that passage too the text almost immediately goes back to calling him Jacob!
The Malbim provides an answer to this problem by making an observation that is both brilliant and almost too obvious. He states that the words “שִׁמְךָ יַעֲקֹב” (“Your name is Jacob”) which precede Jacob’s name change are an assertion that, despite the new name of Israel, the name of Jacob is to remain a relevant name for Jacob on some level. In this interpretation, the Malbim is in fact following the lead of the Or Ha-Chayim, who treats this subject with great interest and in fascinating detail. The Or Ha-Chayim states that Abraham’s name never reverted to Avram because the identity and name of Avram were subsumed within the new name of Abraham. However, unlike Abraham’s name, Jacob’s new name of Israel was one almost too lofty to have on a full-time basis. When Jacob is at his best, he re-achieves the status of his name Israel. When he is compromised by the misbehavior of his children or by the sadness of loss, he reverts to being Jacob. For example: when Jacob is finally united with Joseph, he called Israel (46:29), but when he is burying Rachel, he is Jacob (Gen 35:20).
During Jacob’s stay in Egypt, far away from the Holy Land, he remains Jacob. For this reason, the parsha starts, “And Jacob dwelt in the Land of Egypt for seventeen years” (Gen 47:28). However, as Jacob starts readying himself for the end of his life, taking charge of his affairs and getting ready to bless and instruct his children, he becomes Israel again, particularly as he instructs Joseph to bury him in the Land of Israel (Gen 47:29).
Although there are many things we can learn from the Or Ha-Chayim’s analysis, one detail we can focus on is the fact that Jacob was able to reclaim the name of Israel in Egypt, even if briefly. That is to say, he was able to be at his best, a shining example of holiness and ethical propriety, even in a foreign land inhospitable to monotheism and Torah values. Certainly we can look to the accomplishments of our ancestor Israel for encouragement and inspiration when we feel we are in a place inhospitable to spirituality or inimical to ethical behavior.
From Jewish Sacred Aging
Vayechi: The Blessing of Each Day
Written by: Rabbi Richard Address
We end Genesis this week. Vayechi is a portion of great drama and passion. In it we see the conclusion of the cycle that began with Avram and progressed to Jacob and Joseph. Family dynamics in these stories reflect so much of what we see in our families. In the end, however, despite a history in many cases of deceit and rivalry, Jacob is surrounded by his family and offers his blessings, albeit varied as they were. Here are the proof texts for what we call now Ethical Wills as well as a foundational support for the need for each of us to have “the conversation” about our own end of life wishes with our families. As Genesis ends, we are presented with the reality of blessing and the healing power that these blessings may convey. As I thought about this portion, I was reminded that perhaps the most powerful of our blessings as we age, may be the “Sh’hech’yanu” which gives thanks that we have the day, that we have lived to experience this moment in time.
This reflection I think can be seen in a text from the portion in which Jacob blesses Joseph’s two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. Joseph was told that his dad was dying and so he brought his sons to say goodbye. Jacob, blesses the boys in a manner that gives primary focus to the younger over the elder (a theme again of Genesis). “So he blessed them that day…” ([48:20]). Abraham Twerski, in his “Living Each Week” notes that you could read the verse as “He blessed them with that day” meaning that he hoped these boys would be able to lead lives on “that day” when they would be “unencumbered by the burdens of the past and without assuming futile worries about those future events which are not subject to change at the present”. (p.104)
In other words, here is a similar message to the one we see from Deuteronomy 29 and the emphasis on the word “ha yom” (the day). There is a sense of blessing to be able to live in the day, unencumbered by wishes to re-do the past or live in “what if” of the future, neither of which, past or future, can we control. There is a sense that we are asked to bless each day. Indeed, the tradition of waking and saying “modeh ani l’fanecha”, (I give thanks for this new day) carries with it the sense that many of us feel as we get older that each day is a blessing and presents us with another opportunity to give and receive blessings. So take with you this message from the end of Genesis, a message that each day is a blessing, that each moment of life is a gift and that to squander that gift of time is to refuse the blessing that is given to us with each new day.
Rabbi Richard F. Address
From My Jewish Learning
Feeling The Presence Of God
God’s presence at Jacob’s deathbed teaches us that our reactions to the situations in which we find ourselves determine our spiritual perceptions.
BY RABBI NEAL J. LOEVINGER
Jacob and all his descendants are reunited in Egypt under Joseph’s protection. Jacob is close to death, so he blesses Joseph’s two children as his own, reversing his hands so that the younger is blessed in the manner of the older son. This time, however, there is no acrimony between brothers. Jacob calls all his sons to his deathbed and speaks a kind of ethical will and final blessing.
Jacob dies, and is taken by Joseph and the family to be buried in the Land of Israel. Thinking that Joseph may now take revenge, the brothers fear for their lives, but Joseph forgives them for selling him into slavery, reminding them that God has brought them to Egypt for a reason. Joseph dies, and asks to be taken up to Israel when the Israelite nation eventually leaves Egypt.
“…and Yisrael bowed down upon the head of the bed.” (Genesis 47:31)
Jacob, here called Yisrael, feels that his end is near, and so makes Joseph swear that he will bring Jacob’s body back to the Land of Israel after his passing. After pressuring Joseph to make this oath, he bows down on or by his sickbed.
It’s not exactly clear why or to whom Jacob would bow after making Joseph swear his oath. One could say that Jacob was bowing to Joseph himself, who was like a king in Egypt, but some commentators say that ordinarily a parent would not humble themselves before a child. Perhaps it was a gesture of acceptance; Jacob had to accept both his impending death and the fact that only Joseph had the power to carry out his desire to be buried in the Land of Israel.
Rashi [a medieval Torah commentator] says that Jacob was not bowing to Joseph, but to God:
He [Jacob] turned himself in the direction of the Divine Presence [Shechina]. From this passage [the sages] have said that the Shechina is above the head of one who is sick.
Rashi’s midrash is based on statements found in the Talmud, and it’s easy to see how this teaching would bring strength and comfort to the sick or dying. It is a beautiful theology, imagining the Presence of God “hovering” (as it were) over someone who is suffering.
This image of God helps us to understand that God can be present with us in sad or tragic times, even if “miracles” don’t seem to be forthcoming. In this case, Rashi imagines Jacob bowing out of humility before the Holy One, Whom Jacob perceived as present, near his sickbed. (Actually, in another place Rashi seems to imply that Jacob could have indeed been bowing to Joseph, but that’s for a different day.)
Commenting on this midrash, the Hasidic master Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav offers a psychological insight into Rashi’s midrash:
The reason for this is that even a very evil person has thoughts of t’shuvah in this time [i.e., upon a sickbed]. (Source: Itturei Torah).
Teshuvah is commonly translated as “repentance,” but it comes from the word meaning “turn,” or “return.” Teshuvah involves introspection and “soul-accounting,” and making amends for whatever wrongs we have caused.
Thus R. Nahman is saying that just being sick, in itself, doesn’t bring the Shechina, but rather that God is felt to be Present when a human being is asking hard questions about life, looking deeply into his or her own soul and struggling to do the right thing. It’s the wrestling with conscience that opens up this level of spirituality, not the illness, which just gives us a chance to do the thinking.
Now, please understand, when a text says that God, or the Shechina, is present, it doesn’t mean that God is absent or missing at other times –I believe these texts are talking about what we perceive and feel. Sometimes we feel that God is closer, and sometimes farther away.
What we learn from R. Nachman is that our spiritual perception is not determined by the fact of external circumstances that, but rather how we react to our situation. “Turning” our hearts is a precondition to feeling the presence of the sacred; without openness, inwardness and humility, the Divine Presence might be close indeed, but we’d never notice.
Provided by KOLEL–The Adult Centre for Liberal Jewish Learning, which is affiliated with Canada’s Reform movement.
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